Everything you need to know about Finland: facts, history and news

(CNN Spanish) — This is a look at Finland, the easternmost of the Nordic countries in Europe, bordering Sweden, Norway and Russia.

About Finland

(Data of CIA World Factbook)

Surface: 338,145 square kilometers

Population: 5,601,547 (2022 estimate)

Average age: 42.8 years

Capital: Helsinki

Ethnic groups: Finnish 92%, followed by Swedish, Russian, Estonian, Roma and Sami

Unemployment: 6.63% (2019 estimate)

Finland seizes works of art that were going back to Russia 0:39

Other data

For centuries the territory of Finland was controlled by Sweden and later by Russia, although it does not share a language or ethnic origin with the Swedes or the Russians. He achieved his independence complete in 1917.

In World War II Finland maintained its independence by first cooperating with Germany to deal with attacks from the Soviet Union. About the end of the war, reached an agreement with the Soviets and broke off relations with the Germans.

finland se declared neutral during the Cold War, maintaining links with both blocs while went through its evolution from an agrarian and forestry economy to a diversified industrial economy, with an important technological sector.

Entry in the European Union in 1995. In recent years Finland has also been discussing internally its possible entry into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine and threats from Moscow, the Finnish government has stated its intentions to speed up the process.

A view of Helsinki, the capital of Finland.


12th to 19th centuries – Finland is first a province and later a grand duchy under Swedish control.

1809 – The country becomes a grand duchy of Russia, with greater autonomy.

1917 – Independence from Finland.

1939 – The Soviet Union invades Finland in the context of a series of border disputes between the two countries. The Winter War would continue until 1940.

1941 to 1944 – Without joining the Axis, Finland begins to cooperate militarily with Germany to recover lost territories against the Soviet Union.

1944 – Finland and the USSR sign peace, after which the Finns go to war with Germany to expel its troops deployed in the country.

1947 to 1991 – Pressured by its extensive border with the USSR and recent history, Finland declared neutral during the Cold War, maintaining relations with both blocs and neither opposing nor allying with the Soviets.

Meanwhile he passed his evolution of an agrarian and forestry economy to a diversified industrial economy, achieving a international high profile precisely because of its neutrality, which made the country the venue for international summits between leaders of both blocs.

NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg meets with Finnish Prime Minister Sanna Marin on October 25, 2021. (Credit: JUSSI NUKARI/Lehtikuva/AFP via Getty Images)

1994 – Finland starts to cooperate with NATO, joining the Partnership for Peace (PfP) initiatives and then, in 1997, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC).

nineteen ninety five – Finland enter in the European Union, and in 1999 adopt also the euro.

2014 – It becomes one of the six countries that are not members of NATO but are part of the Interoperability Initiative (PII) of the alliance, contributing “significantly” to its operations.

February 2022 – After the Russian invasion of Ukraine, NATO advertise a strengthening of its cooperation with Finland and Sweden, which includes political dialogues, exchange of information, training and joint actions, among other measures.

April 2022 – Finnish Prime Minister Sanna Marin said her country’s parliament will discuss possible NATO membership, adding that she hopes these discussions will be concluded “before the summer solstice.”

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